Evidently, Nigeria's political culture. (eds. /F4 15 0 R This notwithstanding, the concept of federalism boasts of a very popular definition by an American scholar, K.C. Also, Read: Local Government In Nigeria : Definition, Functions, And Importance. federalism, a heavily coercive effort by a nondemocratic centralizing power to put together a multinational state, some of the components of which had previously been independent states. As I have already explained, Nigeria is an amalgamation of three different regions with beliefs and customs. This was many times more the population of most African countries then. This is so because where federal principles apply, the various ethnic groups that cannot or dont form majority to produce large part may have the opportunity of governing themselves within their federating unit controlled by them. The Plural nature of Nigeria. It was subsequently, not until after the American constitution of 1787, that a new concept of federalism was introduced. The availability of resources in a particular region and the need for that area to control the resources has also been seen as a reason for a federal system in Nigeria. 2012, Issues and Trends in Nigeria's Development. politicization of ethnicity or the ethnicization of the politics of state creation that Nigeria has witnessed in recent years. - Cooperative or "marble-cake" federalism is de ned as a exible relationship between the national and state government in which both work together on a variety of issues and programs. /F5 18 0 R Your email address will not be published. There are three major tribes in Nigeria namely Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba. READ ALSO: History of democracy in Nigeria from 1960. And this is one of the factors responsible for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. x^[YsF~[-`pys)fk"%J hE;}LO *%gH=zoN/oNS~~zb|\U?_s3jJ}ZxhK2&$9|H-&9)q7"|kxN7i,anHiw>&_N~@bdkBs>gIM>z2|1zFDW+1"y-#HCQJmvj4CW5z,#IwHGc&Y"`Sg|2)FQ& p:?WT hQ4M:*|9tKy?c[U(zqfNBA=XCOf~2i6KC@;DGO? 2023, Bscholarly LLC. 2. Notwithstanding the above reasons for the adoption of Nigerian federalism, we can also mention some specific factors peculiar to Nigeria. More importantly, certain heavy but blurred (or fluid) terminologies that define or designate Nigerias federal principle, which are highly pertinent to coexistence, have yet compounded the theoretical and practical significance of federalism in Nigeria. There may be no point, of course, boring ones moment with such lengthy activity of working out their conceptual nuances. 4 0 obj Nigeria therefore falls into the latter because of the wide diversities. Federalism was basically introduced to bring about peace and unity in the different regions of the country. /Filter /DCTDecode Here, both the majority and minority are represented in the government. The regional government had power over matters that are listed under the residual list. Present Nigeria was formed by the amalgamation of two regions which many see as a big influence in why federalism was later adopted by the British and later on by Nigerian leaders as at the time of independence. The advanced economies where Nigeria had borrowed leaves from, such as USA practice federalism. 2013 PP.100-107, This paper explores the issue of unification federalism in Nigeria, which has been an obstacle to peace, development and threats to security .The findings from an extensive reading of related materials suggest that, the root of contemporary political conflict and underdevelopment in Nigeria political landscape shows clearly in the area of imbalance political structures that were established before and after independence. The first military head of state, General J.T.U Aguiyi Ironsi for instance was interested in a unitary Nigeria and he scrapped federalism. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. ideology, federalism becomes the only solution to ensure peace and unity amongst the. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. One of the major reasons why countries choose federalism is because of size. The federal system adopted in 1954 comprised a national government and three regional governments: Eastern, Northern, and Western. The constitution must be rigid to avoid frequent and unnecessary changes. Between 1960 and 1996, the three regions have been divided into smaller entities which are now known as states and their boundaries were reorganised. READ ALSO: Reasons for political apathy in Nigeria, Get the hottest stories from the largest news site in Nigeria. Since Nigeria is a heterogeneous nation and Federalism is more practicable in such kind of nation, it is an ideal system of government. Promoters of the idea were of the view that the Federalism has been present in Nigeria since the former British colony was reorganized into a federation of three regions in 1946. Olawale Olaopa, Ibikunle Ogundari, Mike Awoleye and Willie Siyanbola, Nigeria Quasi Federalism: An Obstacle To Peace And Development In Nigeria, FEDERAL BALANCING IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY, DECENTRALIZING PUBLIC SECTOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND THE CONTRADICTIONS OF FEDERAL PRACTICE IN NIGERIA, The National Assembly, Constitution Amendment and Civil Society Expectations, True Federalism in Nigeria: A Political Discourse, Re-regionalization and Fiscal Federalism: The Panacea for Accelerated National Development in Nigeria, REPORT OF NIGERIA'S 2014 NATIONAL DIALOGUE, Politics, Power. Federalism can be defined as a system of government in which political powers of the state are shared between the central government and other component units. And this is one of the factors responsible for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text ] This is because most of the power (financial and. Peter W I L F R E D Naankiel, FRED EKPE F. AYOKHAI, Covenant University Journal of Politics and International Affairs, African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, African Journal of Governance and Development, Calabar Journal of Politics and Administration, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Under Reconstruction: Ethnicity, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Future of the Nigerian State, Institutional Engineering and the Survival of Nigerian Federalism, " Managing a Plural Society : the Boomerang Effects of Nigerian Federalism' Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics , 27, 1-2 (July 1989), 218-245, An Historical Interrogation of Federalism berlin, THE PRACTICE OF TRUE FEDERALISM IN NIGERIA AND THE NIGER DELTA QUESTION, "The dawn of constitutionalism in Nigeria in Mbondenyi, M. K., and Ojienda T. As a result, issues relating to marginalization, economic imbalance, social alienation, ethnic suspicion and superior-subordination contestation are recurring malaises in the system. In my view, federalism is a good system for Nigeria. Also it is more useful to expansiate on them. >> It has been suggested that the creation of more states and local government have helped in the distribution of national cake. So, without wasting much time, what is a federal system of government? To learn more, view ourPrivacy Policy. I love this article,very educating and interesting . Over the years, it is quite obvious that Nigeria is one of the few countries that adopted federal system of Government in Africa, a system that envisages autonomy for every sect of its authorities (federal, state and local government respectively). Also, Read: Bad Leadership Causes, Effects And Solutions In Nigeria. /Length 14727 /Type /XObject The Legacy of Biafra: An Investigation into trauma as National Identity Fragmentation, Under Reconstruction: Ethnicity, Ethnic Nationalism, and the Future of the Nigerian State, ETHNIC SCHISM IN NIGERIA: A SOCIO-LITERAY STUDY OF CHINUA ACHEBE'S THERE WAS COUNTRY. Be the first to get hottest news from our Editor-in-Chief, Check your email and confirm your subscription. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. This prototype edition of the daily Federal Register on FederalRegister.gov will remain an unofficial informational resource until the Administrative Committee of the Federal Register (ACFR) issues a regulation granting it official legal status. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] By every political barometer, this is a thought-provoking account of the Nigeria-Biafra political imbroglio. Then Nigeria was organised into a federation that had three regions. Another major reason why federalism was adopted in Nigeria is the multiple ethnic backgrounds in Nigeria. Federalism was further adopted because the developed countries from which Nigeria borrowed democracy practice federalism. The powers that exist between the federal and state government also depends on the constitution. It argues that although deficient in popular sovereignty, the Constitutions legitimacy is moot since it is the operative law that governs the country. No doubt, the Ethnic, Religious and Geographical nature of Nigeria also contributed to the reason why federalism was adopted. The Hausa Fulani and the Minorities feared the domination of political powers by the Igbos and Yorubas. It will schock you to know Nigerias adoption of federalism was also in the interest of the leaders. Secondly, are these groups well pleased, or do they at least accept such manipulative placements? >> Federalism was favoured among other systems of government in a bid to averting both fancied and real fear of domination among the minorities. The Plural nature of Nigeria: Nigeria is a plural society of over 250 tongues and tribes. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. In this paper I explain the hows and whys of the minorities continued disadvantaged status in spite of the far-reaching steps that have been taken to ameliorate, if not eliminate, the problem. This is because federalism is presented as a panacea in organizing distinct political identities under a state. Government at different periods had set up commissions to advise on the acceptable revenue sharing formula, especially as it affects the three (3) tiers of government. This is also one of the reasons for federal system of government in Nigeria. |4-Iv Very often, the problem has appeared in twofold. The Emergence of Nigeria as a political entity under colonial rule was not an easy affair. It should be noted that the Federal Military Government had earlier by fiat taken proceeds from offshore prospecting and drilling activities directly under federal eminent domain. By the time Nigeria got her independence, the various party involved had been regionally based. It was believed that federal system of government would take care of the interest of the minority and human rights that had been the fear of the minority under colonial rule. In light of this, a constitution is said to be federal when its operates two levels of government, that is the federal and state, and each of this level exercise its different powers without interference by the other level. However, where there is a conflict of authority between the federal government and regional government, the federal authority supersedes. By and large, it is the nature of the relationship of the federal and state governments that determines whether a state is federal or unitary. The political parties involved in the first republic were more formed on a regional basis. Fear of insecurity and the desire for a Union Meaning of federalism? Also, the adoption of the Littleton constitution of 1954 laid further credence to . *$( %2%(,-/0/#484.7*./. C Moreover, it is important to note that most of the ethnic groups in Nigeria had strong political inter-group relationship before colonial rule. The United States, Canada, India, France and Australia adopted federalism because of the desire for security by the various ethnic units. In a unitary constitution which opposes federal principles, everything belongs to the central government; the federating unit does not exist, let alone agitating for resource control. In this article, I will elucidate and discuss with references the reasons for the adoption of federalism in Nigeria. Federalism in Nigeria. However, the practice of fiscal federalism in Nigeria is a negation of true federalism. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 www.ijhssi.org Volume 2 Issue 8 August. REASONS FOR LOW TRADE Historical reasons - India adopted socialist model of economy and policy of import substitution and protectionism till 1990s and civil wars and domestic instability in other countries Poor Connectivity- Due to difficult terrain on borders, poor development of inland waterways, poor border infrastructure like border huts . It has severally been emphasized by both the Northern and Western politicians that God did not create Nigeria but the British. INTRO: Federalism has been approached with variegated definitions such that one might argue that there are as much definitions of federalism as there are authors on the subject. Hon. A Policy Brief examining the actors, factors and dynamics of the agitations, questioning if the current agitation is another flash in the pan and if current responses are adequate to address the agitations for secession of Biafra from Nigeria. Thus, there is continuous agitation by many ethnic nationalities for a sovereign national conference in order to renegotiate the Nigeria federal deal to put Nigeria on the path of true federalism to guarantee her unity and co-existence. Everybody would likely agree that the conscious awareness and awakening of the course of who is who invariably determines who gets what, perhaps when and how. << In recent times, specifically in post 2015 general election, there have been new waves of agitations for the Biafra republic by both Movement for Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra and Indigenous People of Biafra on one hand and for Niger Delta republic by Niger Delta Avengers on the other, added to terrorism and militancy that are already threatening Nigeria fragile state. One of the major reasons why countries choose federalism is because of size. In the same way, the political culture of the United States is civic, republican and participatory. He is also a Developer with knowledge in HTML, CSS, JS, PHP and React Native. First, how to properly place peoples, better still - indigenes and ethnic groupings, in their relevant socio-economic categories; that is, in line with the oil windfalls. ff>qsfN? According to Ayoade (2009:iii): Nigerians have come to identify the first republic 1960- 66 as the golden age of federalism in Nigeria. ICT services have help in the improvement of the markets, reduction in transaction costs and increase . The analysis of the emerging issues and scenarios as well as the response options aims at supporting the efforts of different stakeholders including the Federal government on managing the current pro-Biafra agitation. Critically, after that train, every other train went to Nigeria from Nigeria, indicating the enormity of the wall of enmity demarcating Nigeria from the sovereign State of Biafra. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. Since 1954 successively Nigerian constitution had adopted the federal system of government without much emphasis on the unity or disunity it has accorded to Nigeria. Besides the Big Three Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba, there are other macro and micro ethnic minorities in the country. Do you know the reasons for federalism in Nigeria? It needs proper review so that the country can move forward as a nation. 7 Topics Revenue Allocation in Nigeria | Week 9. RESTRUCTURE OR DISINTEGRATE, OFFICIAL CORRUPTION AND THE DILEMA OF INSTABILITY IN NIGERIA, The Rationale for AfSol in Peace and Security: The Global, National and Regional Precipitants, Agitation for Restructuring and Resource Control in Nigeria's Federalism: Issues, Perspectives and the Way Forward, Giving Peace a Chance in Nigeria: The Case for a Preventive Diplomacy, Framing of Neo-Biafra Agitations in Selected Nigerian Newspapers, CRISES OF FEDERALISM IN NIGERIA AND THE FUTURE OF THE MIDDLE BELT REGION, Social Media and Hate Speech: Analysis of Comments on Biafra Agitations, Nigeria. Since a strong bond links the process through which constitutions are produced and their degree of acceptance and effectiveness, questions over the Constitutions legitimacy prompted parliament to amend it in 2010. So for effective governance of a country of this big size, federalism has to be adopted. 3 Reasons for federal system of government in Nigeria 3.1 1. The origin of federalism in Nigeria can be traced to the colonial era. The size of Nigeria is therefore managed and maintained with federalism. by the federal or any state government. Your email address will not be published. The current problems facing the Nigeria government and the Biafra separatist agitators originate in the causes and the effects of the Nigerian Civil war (06 July 1967-15 January 1970). POL 124 MAIN CONTENT Mar 21, 2011 NEW (1), Resource Control, Federalism and Peace in the Niger Delta: A Reflection on Nigeria at Fifty, Federalism and Revenue Allocation in Nigeria: A Critical Evaluation of the Derivation Principle, Legal Framework for Fiscal Federalism: Issues and Options for Reform, RESOURCE CONTROL, REVENUE ALLOCATION AND PETROLEUM POLITICS IN NIGERIA: THE NIGER DELTA QUESTION, Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in Nigeria's Fourth Republic: Issues and Challenges, The Nigerian State and the Quest for Restructuring: Implications for Democratic Consolidation, Federalism, Democracy and Constitutionalism: The Nigerian Experience. Mainly of telling who is who in a given society. %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz It established that the resources of a particular state is not totally owned by the federal government. This regional arrangement gave rise to ethnic sentiment and political struggle for the center among the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. History of federal system of government in nigeria. 3l:rmO"XDhG%2| Mere desire to unite is not enough but there must be the desire to remain separate in respect to other matters. Nigeria are typically inclined to the derivation principle, which is the process of distributing centrally generated revenue to constituent units with regards to the contribution made by a group to the country's more 12substantial income. The effectiveness of linking communications has been a vital factor in geographical unit. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. That is often the reason why some adherents of Marx quarrel vehemently about such preordained classification such as: haves and have-nots; and the liberal minds grappling with, insisting not only that all hands are not equal, but that they must never, for whatsoever reason at all, be made equal - believing that that would tantamount to the highest injustice. However, that is not so in a federal government system. He rejects the assertion that The paper suggested that fiscal and political restructuring as panacea for the instituted conflicts and underdevelopment caused by quasi federalism through ongoing review of the 1999 constitution. Reasons For The Adoption Of Federalism In Nigeria. It is important to also reason that small states are prone to domination and sometimes control by the big ones. Biafrans who are geographically in the South and SouthEast of Ni-geria feel and believe that their economic and developmental prowess are not well represented in the Nigerian state, and this lack of representation leads to marginalization. Again, in 1967 twelve states were created to appease the interest of those clamoring for states and weaken the geo-political holds of Biafra. The states' territories were formed around ethnic groups with common interest and close ties, culture, and dialects. MCC Vol 2 No 1 Article 04.pdf, GJ #2018, 2, Globalization and Federation in Peril: Renewed Agitations for Statehood and the Future of Nigerian State, by A. M. Maigari and U. Dantani, GLOBALIZATION AND FEDERATION IN PERIL: RENEWED AGITATIONS FOR STATEHOOD AND THE FUTURE OF NIGERIAN STATE, RESTRUCTURING NIGERIA: BEYOND POLITICAL RHETORIC AND THE MORAL PANIC, PDF copy of Published paper on Agitation and restructuring.pdf, ESSAYS ON RIGHT TO SELF DETERMINATION AS A PEREMPTORY NORM AND THE LIMITATION IN EXERCISING THAT RIGHT.pdf, Federalism, Military Legacies and the Restructuring Debate in Contemporary Nigeria, Legal Aid Journal of Legal Issues Vol. was federalism friendly and that gave rise to easy adoption of . %PDF-1.5 Another factor that prompted the adoption of federalism in Nigeria is the fear of insecurity and the desire for union. This type of government is also known as a "federation" or a "federal state" in common parlance (eg., United States of America). i dont have my first school leaving certificate. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to Sir Frederick Lord Lugard, when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated in 1914. In 1939 sir Bernard Bourdillion made a serious constitutional proposal which concluded having regional councils with a central council in Lagos. Is there high propensity or likelihood of exclusion, marginalization and relative deprivation, which was to engender obsessive mutual antagonism? Federalism in India. Prior to independence, it is believed that the British adopted federalism because it favored their interest. It also shows the growth rate as an engine to the development of economies of developing countries like Nigeria in this 21p century. Samuel is bent on changing the legal profession by building Web and Mobile Apps that will make legal research a lot easier. To make mortgage industry standards more flexible and modernized, the proposed rule would remove the requirement that lenders and mortgagees register with HUD each branch office . /F1 6 0 R The 1951 constitution gave more strength to regionalism with the creation of two chamber legislation in the northern and western Nigeria. 3 0 obj We hope to seeing you again on other posts of interest. The logic for this call, nay, agitation for self-determination by this group is not faulty in itself except that the laws of the land; Nigeria 1999 Constitution (as amended) does not guarantee self-determination or secession by any group of the Nigerian political environment. The governmental powers are shared between the federal government and the thirty-six state governments. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); Reasons for the Adoption of Federalism in Nigeria. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to Sir Frederick Lord Lugard , when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated in 1914. Federalism was favoured among other systems of government in a bid to averting . We can offhandedly list all of the reasons for the adoption of federal system in Nigeria. Also see: Differences between Cross-offers and counter-offers, five reasons for the adoption of federalism in nigeria. At the heart of these crises are weak democratic institutions, which are sustained by bad leadership and a culture of impunity. It submits that the problem with constitutionalism in Nigeria is poor leadership and poor implementation of the Constitution. There is a general opinion that Nigeria was formed because of the interest of the British and they had to govern the country under a federation system. This paper is a critical exploration of the current challenges bedeviling the Nigerian state, capable of heating up the polity and disintegrating the Nigerian project. Consequently, the economic condition was one of the reasons that led to the adoption of federal systems of government in both Nigeria and South Africa. /Height 235 This paper exploits the growth benefits that ICT sector has provided and its impact on the Nigerian economy. (8 Best Paying Jobs), General consensus among our leaders when seeking independence from Britain. Federalism is a method of segregating powers so that the central and local governments are each within a domain, harmonizing and autonomous. The leaders also were from different major tribes and also wanted a level of power. Nigeria can be said to be operating the federal system of government, whereas in actual practice, the country is tending towards a unitary system. Nigeria is confronted to the boomerang effects of the evolution of its federalism. Excellent, thanks a lot f Have you ever wondered why Nigeria is practicing a federal system of government and not any other system? Now, because the level of the development of the productive forces was still at a rudimentary stage, the pervasiveness of commodity relations was equally at a low level. Nigeria's independence was gotten and founded on the basis of a federalist system of Government. However, it is also fact that since independence Nigeria has promulgated several constitutions and that if Nigeria wanted an alternative system of government, she could have opted for it. It allows for popular participation in politics at every level of government. Fiscal Federalism and Democratic Governance in Nigeria - I. O. Taiwo 2004 As a Nigerian, it is important to understand some basic things about the system of governance in Nigeria and why it is so. Manages And Maintains And Secures Nigeria. Another cogent reason for federalism in Nigeria is the fear of marginalization. This allows the central or federal government to share governmental powers between the central or federal government and the components regions, state, etc. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. sir Arthur Richards strengthened this proposal in 1945 and regionalism was introduced by his administration in 1946. In federalism, there is accountability, there is transparency. Federalism was implemented in Nigeria as way back as 1946 during the British colonial era. This post will give you some insight into why federalism was adopted as the system of governance in Nigeria. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide Economic factors in adoption of federalism in Nigeria are not unconnected with the issues of resource control, wealth generation and redistribution, and income distribution. V(B8eDK@sx AK hG~ u;6DV,pwP# _ O4C sR 8_yC ! 9S ) ?roh _ O4C sR & Pf?? AK kyC?& Pf;_Hu j_ G$: 5/ The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is publishing this proposed rule to revise HUD's regulations for branch office registration requirements. ! Email Address. There must be a formal decision of government powers by the constitution between the federal and state government. This has led to a deep sense of alienation and politics of ethnic identity. /F2 9 0 R /Font << In developing countries like India, Iraq and Nigeria, federalism has either failed to close developmental gaps and ethno-communal tensions among various states or, more worryingly, in some. Nigeria is a plural society of over 250 tongues and tribes. Size and population of a country is among the determinants of the level of power and influence which a country commands. Not minding the general relevance of these coinages, an arduous task lies in properly assessing their specific impacts in a given political enclave. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. This simply means that federalism in Nigeria provides accommodation, an institutional arrangement which gives the component units equal and coordinate jural status. As one of the most effective frameworks for governing a pluralistic society, Nigeria adopted Federalism to manage her multi-ethnic state. 7 Cooperative federalism was dominant from the 1930s through the 1970s. Each document posted on the site includes a link to the corresponding official PDF file on govinfo.gov. Regrettably, this system is founded on a militarily-conceived constitution lacking a fully enforceable bill of rights and clear governmental functions. Pillars of democracy: 7 Essential pillars of democracy. /F6 21 0 R ), Constitutionalism, Constitution Making and Constitutional Reform in Africa: Contemporary Perspectives from Sub-Saharan Africa, Chapter IX: The politics and policies of oil deregulation in Nigeria: Implications and policy suggestions. The possible reasons for the practice of federalism in Nigeria are several, and have, for instance, been presented as British imposition targeted at a post-colonial relationship, or as a. We appreciate you. In his judgment, Ogundare JSC agreed that the provisions to Sections 162(2) of the constitution re-stabilized the principle of derivation. More so, the colonial masters with the Richards Constitution in 1947 launched Nigeria onto the path of the present federal system of government via the regionalization of the country. Since federal systems have been formed for different reasons and to /Width 371 British North American colonies unite 3 Up to 1867, the colonies 4 of British North America had no political or geographical links.